Title: Bio/Nano/CMOS interfaces for Remote Monitoring of Human Metabolism

Presenter:

Sandro Carrara, EPFL - Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switerzland 

Abstract: 

I have opened the new emerging area of co-design in Bio/Nano/CMOS interfaces for sensory systems [1], as also confirmed by the fact that I became IEEE fellow and I am the recipient of the 2016 IEEE Sensors Council Technical Achievement Award for my leadership in this new emerging area. In this definitely new domain, the design of the CMOS analog frontend, typically required by the more advanced and autonomous sensing, is developed together with a detailed design of the biological and nanostructured films incorporated in the sensor bio-interface. Therefore, the traditional CMOS design for sensors frontends is then unified with the design of the geometry of the electrochemical electrodes as well as the design of their nano-structuration (by means of carbon nanotubes, or carbon nano flowers, or gold nanoparticles, or graphene nano-flowers, etc...) as well as the design of the right biosensing film for the considered application. In this new co-design, the three design layers (CMOS, nano, and bio) are addressing different system needs meanwhile simultaneously contributing to global system performance in biosensing. Therefore, the aim of this tutorial (proposed as morning lecture) is to present innovative concepts for multipanel, highly integrated, fully implantable, remotely powered and real-time monitoring systems for human metabolism at molecular level. The considered metabolic molecules will be glucose, lactate, glutamate, ATP [2], and anticancer drugs as well as anti-inflammatory ones [3]. In case of drugs, the specificity of electrochemical sensors is improved at system level [4]. The proposed nanotechnology will be based on carbon nanotubes to improve the sensors performance [3, 5]. To pursue their detection, innovative VLSI solutions [6] are discussed including the system remote powering [7]. The new approach is demonstrated by showing Systems-In-Package with embedded System-On-Chip that integrate: (i) a sensors array for data acquisition; (ii) remote power and/or data transmission; (iii) nano-sensors; CMOS IC design; (iv) multi-panel metabolites detection. Systems applications are shown in the field of implantable devices with in-vivo experiments too [8] by including packaging issues [9] and monitoring in intensive care units [10]. Integrated electrochemical Nano/Bio/CMOS Sensors [1] for diagnosis and/or treatment of patients with specific physiological conditions (e.g., heart, cardiovascular, cancer diseases) or convalescents are a key factor to provide better, more rationale, effective and ultimately low-cost health care also at home. The ultimate goal of improved health care on those subjects is the extension of the patients' autonomy, the possibility for auto-monitoring, the improvement of their comfort levels and their integration into everyday life. Some systems for on-line monitoring are available in the market. They use wearable devices (accelerometers, heartbeat monitoring system, etc). However, all these systems do not measure the human metabolism at molecular level (metabolites). The only available real-time, implantable/wearable systems for metabolic control are limited to glucose monitoring and used only for diabetic patients. However, electrochemical sensors may address so many other molecules, which have crucial relevance in human metabolism in chronic patients. Thus, the tutorial will present a series of integrated nano-bio-systems for multi-metabolites, real-time, remote monitoring of the human metabolism that have been realized in recent years by using the approach of co-design in Bio/Nano/CMOS interfaces for sensory systems. I have opened the new emerging area of co-design in Bio/Nano/CMOS interfaces for sensory systems [1], as also confirmed by the fact that I became IEEE fellow and I am the recipient of the 2016 IEEE Sensors Council Technical Achievement Award for my leadership in this new emerging area. In this definitely new domain, the design of the CMOS analog frontend, typically required by the more advanced and autonomous sensing, is developed together with a detailed design of the biological and nanostructured films incorporated in the sensor bio-interface. Therefore, the traditional CMOS design for sensors frontends is then unified with the design of the geometry of the electrochemical electrodes as well as the design of their nano-structuration (by means of carbon nanotubes, or carbon nano-flowers, or gold nanoparticles, or graphene nano-flowers, etc...) as well as the design of the right biosensing film for the considered application. In this new co-design, the three design layers (CMOS, nano, and bio) are addressing different system needs meanwhile simultaneously contributing to global system performance in biosensing. Therefore, the aim of this tutorial (proposed as morning lecture) is to present innovative concepts for multipanel, highly integrated, fully implantable, remotely powered and real-time monitoring systems for human metabolism at molecular level. The considered metabolic molecules will be glucose, lactate, glutamate, ATP [2], and anticancer drugs as well as anti-inflammatory ones [3]. In case of drugs, the specificity of electrochemical sensors is improved at system level [4]. The proposed nanotechnology will be based on carbon nanotubes to improve the sensors performance [3, 5]. To pursue their detection, innovative VLSI solutions [6] are discussed including the system remote powering [7]. The new approach is demonstrated by showing Systems-In-Package with embedded System-On-Chip that integrate: (i) a sensors array for data acquisition; (ii) remote power and/or data transmission; (iii) nano-sensors; CMOS IC design; (iv) multi-panel metabolites detection. Systems applications are shown in the field of implantable devices with in-vivo experiments too [8] by including packaging issues [9] and monitoring in intensive care units [10]. Integrated electrochemical Nano/Bio/CMOS Sensors [1] for diagnosis and/or treatment of patients with specific physiological conditions (e.g., heart, cardiovascular, cancer diseases) or convalescents are a key factor to provide better, more rationale, effective and ultimately low-cost health care also at home. The ultimate goal of improved health care on those subjects is the extension of the patients' autonomy, the possibility for auto-monitoring, the improvement of their comfort levels and their integration into everyday life. Some systems for on-line monitoring are available in the market. They use wearable devices (accelerometers, heartbeat monitoring system, etc). However, all these systems do not measure the human metabolism at molecular level (metabolites). The only available real-time, implantable/wearable systems for metabolic control are limited to glucose monitoring and used only for diabetic patients. However, electrochemical sensors may address so many other molecules, which have crucial relevance in human metabolism in chronic patients. Thus, the tutorial will present a series of integrated nano-bio-systems for multi-metabolites, real-time, remote monitoring of the human metabolism that have been realized in recent years by using the approach of co-design in Bio/Nano/CMOS interfaces for sensory systems.